Cloud Computing & Coveraged infrasructure Solution

Kalyx Infotech Pvt. Ltd . has provided the largest converged infrastructure solutions in India.The solutions include thin computing, Blade PC and Server consolidation solutions with the help of HP Products.

  • These solutions help to reduce Carbon footprint and help a green computing platform.
  • BENEFITS OF VIRTUALISATION

Remote clients allow IT departments to square the circle: improved user satisfaction with lower costs, better security and easier management. In addition, they enable IT departments to be more responsive to business needs and switch resources from low-value break/fix maintenance to high value tasks.

  • Centralized support - With a Remote client, fixing hardware problems for end users is simply a matter of swapping thin clients. Desktop support – managing applications, operating systems and so on – can be done centrally along with technical support for end users.
  • Easier to support business change - Blade PCs or Remote client servers can be located in a handful of data centres. This makes it easier to respond to business changes such as acquisitions, office moves and personnel changes.
  • Tame IT sprawl - By shifting to a centralised, standardized PC model, CIOs can gain more control over their estate. Implementing best practices such as backups, updates and licensing become easier. IDC estimate that each Blade PC replaces 1.3 PCs and 0.04 servers along with their associated deployment and support costs.
  • Consolidate desktop management with server management - Remote clients give IT departments the opportunity to co-locate servers and Blade PCs and use a single team to manage both.
  • Redeploy IT resources to higher-value tasks-. IT departments spend lots of time dealing with routine, reactive jobs that virtualisation eliminates. Reducing the burden of break/fix support frees up resources for other, more important work.
  • Reduce PC support costs - The cost of supporting a PC over time greatly outweighs the initial hardware cost. Virtualisation can cut these routine support costs significantly by eliminating many routine tasks and by enabling best practices.
  • Cut technical support calls - A standardized computer environment, with a consistent operating system and application suite, reduces the volume and complexity of support calls – another cost saving.
  • Simplifies software installation, maintenance and licensing - Standardising on Blade PCs simplifies image creation and testing while centralising PCs in a data centre makes it easier to apply updates, install software and ensuring licensing compliance because they are all in the same place and users aren’t able to install their own software. Updates can be installed overnight in the data centre without visiting a single end user desk.
  • Improves data security simplifies backup - Because there are no local hard disks, all user data is stored on reliable, easily backed up network drives. This is especially important for companies where regulations or commercial necessity require high levels of data integrity and control.
  • Improves disaster tolerance - In the event of a disaster, users can move to a different location and still access their files, applications and personal desktop. In addition, multiple data centres can provide fail-over capabilities.
  • Cut user downtime - In the event of a hardware problem with a Blade PC, users are up and running on a new blade (with the same configuration) in less than 60 seconds. Thin client failures are rarer than desktop PC failures because there are no moving parts. In fact, thin clients have a mean time between failures of more than 30 years. IDC calculates that a typical user will save up to 10 hours a year with a Remote client.
  • Reduced risk of theft - Thin clients have little value without its back-end infrastructure and it contains no valuable data.
  • Cut power costs and air-conditioning requirements - A Blade PC and thin client, combined, use less than half the power of a typical desktop computer. This means lower electricity bills, less damage to the environment and a reduced requirement for air conditioning.

Kalyx Infotech Pvt Ltd one of the largest Systems Integrator in Desktops. There is an increasing need for standardisation, patch updates, software distribution, Asset information/ control, Anti-piracy control, License Management, etc ,we at Kalyx Infotech Pvt Ltd get this done.

Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid.

Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client–server in the early 1980s. Details are abstracted from the users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a by-product and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally on their own computer. NIST provides a somewhat more objective and specific definition here. The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers. A key element of cloud computing is customization and the creation of a user-defined experience.

Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centres and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for all consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers, and typically include SLAs The major cloud service providers include MicrosoftSales forceAmazon, and Google.

Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with:

Characteristics

In general, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development). A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. In addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.
The cloud is becoming increasingly associated with SMEs as in many cases they cannot justify or afford the large CapEx of traditional IT. They also typically have less existing infrastructure, less bureaucracy, more flexibility, and smaller capital budgets for purchasing in-house technology. Similarly, SMEs in emerging markets are typically unburdened by established legacy infrastructures, thus reducing the complexity of deploying cloud solutions.

Economics

Cloud computing users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty), and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.

According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity grids early in the 20th century. 
Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great fiscal sense. Other factors impacting the scale of any potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data centre as compared to the cloud vendor's, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud.

Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances); data transfer in and out; storage (measured by the GB-month); I/O requests; PUT requests and GET requestsIP addresses; and load balancing. In some cases, users can bid on instances, with pricing dependent on demand for available instances.

Architecture

Key features

  • Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
  •  Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. [34] This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
  • Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC , mobile). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.
  • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
    • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.
    • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
    • Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized. [27]
  • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for continuity and disaster recovery. Nonetheless, many major cloud computing services have suffered outages, and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected.
  • Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid
  • Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically log accesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Furthermore, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices.
  • Maintenance cloud computing applications are easier to maintain, since they don't have to be installed on each user's computer. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly.
  • Metering cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis. This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS).

Layers

Client

cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems and browsers.

Application

  • Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. People tend to use the terms ‘SaaS’ and ‘cloud’ interchangeably, when in fact they are 2 different things. Key characteristics include:
    • Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software
    • Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web
    • Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics
    • Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades.

Platform

Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.

Infrastructure

Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructure, typically a virtualization environment as a service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data centre space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings.

Server

The server’s layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings

Deployment models

Public cloud

Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.

Community cloud

community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing. With the costs spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant) this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy, security and/or policy compliance. Examples of community cloud include Google's "Gov Cloud".

Hybrid cloud

hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises". By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance
Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting, where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between Cloud Hosting for the web server, and Managed dedicated server for the database server.

Private cloud

The concept of a Private Computer Utility was first described by Douglas Parkhill in his 1966 book "The Challenge of the Computer Utility". The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e.g. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks.

Private cloud and internal cloud have been described as neologisms, however the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years. Even within modern utility industries, hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers.

Some vendors have used the terms to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These (typically virtualisation automation) products offer the ability to deliver some benefits of cloud computing whilst mitigating some of the pitfalls. These offerings capitalise on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns during this time of transition from a product to a functioning service based industry supported by competitive marketplaces.

They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".

 

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